The hip is the second support joint (after the knee) and is similar to a spherical joint. It is composed of the head of the femur held by the portion of the pelvis called acetabulum.  Thanks to its shape, it allows for a wide range of movement. The most common hip disorders are constituted by degenerative joint diseases.


The knee is the largest load-bearing joint in the human body and has a very complex structure, made up of bone, cartilage, a capsule and ligaments: thus the complicated biomechanics of the area and the complexity of its disorders.


The shoulder is the most important joint of the upper body and that with the largest range of movement of the entire human body. As it is not a load-bearing joint, it is less prone to arthritic degenerative processes but is frequently affected by degenerative disorders of the soft tissues, especially of the rotator cuff.


The spine is made up of the vertebrae and the intervertebral disks. The spine plays a fundamental role in providing mobility and functionality, however it is extremely vulnerable to trauma and subject to degenerative disorders related to age.